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Sibley Towner writes: "Daniel is one of the few OT books that can be given a fairly firm date.

In the form in which we have it (perhaps without the additions of , 12), the book must have been given its final form some time in the years 167-164 B. This dating is based upon two assumptions: first, that the authors lived at the later end of the historical surveys that characterize Daniel 7-12; and second, that prophecy is accurate only when it is given after the fact, whereas predictions about the future tend to run astray.

When the people rebelled and killed Gedaliah, they fled to Egypt and took Jeremiah with them.

Tradition relates that in Egypt they stoned Jeremiah.

Based upon these assumptions, the references to the desecration of the Temple and the 'abomination that makes desolate' in 8:9-12; ; and must refer to events known to the author. The inaccurate description of the end of Antiochus' reign and his death in -45, on the other hand, suggests that the author did not know of those events, which occurred late in 164 or early in 163 B. The roots of the hagiographa (idealizing stories) about Daniel and his friends in chaps. Hartman writes: "Having lost sight of these ancient modes of writing, until relatively recent years Jews and Christians have considered Dn to be true history, containing genuine prophecy. 7-12 are written in the first person, it was natural to assume that Daniel in chs.

The best candidates for the historical referents of these events are the desecration of the Temple in Jerusalem and the erection in it of a pagan altar in the autumn of 167 B. 1-6 may date to an earlier time, but the entire work was given its final shape in 164 B. 1-6 was a truly historical character and that he was the author of the whole book.

His historical perspective, often hazy for events in the time of the Babylonian and Persian kings but much clearer for the events during the Seleucid Dynasty, indicates the Hellenistic age. Alberto Soggin writes: "The first difficulties in the historical classification of the book begin with the deportation of Daniel and his companions. Complex problems of foreign policy followed, to which we alluded in our discussion of Jeremiah.

This fort, which had been known but not excavated, was near the ancient fortified city of Tell Habua.

Archaeologists found a relief of King Thutmose II, who ruled from 1516-1504 B. It may be the first royal monument found in Sinai, according to Zahi Hawass, chief of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.

Josiah brought about the final spiritual revival for Judah when he came to the throne in 622 B. Chapters 33-48 speak of the hope of restoration for the people held in captivity after the fall of Jerusalem. To speak locally to the exiles whom Jeremiah addresses by letter (e.g., Jer. The sacrificial offerings mentioned in these chapters are to be understood as devoid of propitiatory or atoning character, since Christ's sacrifice provided an atonement which was sufficient for all time (Heb ).

At issue were seeming discrepancies between the prophet's understanding of temple ritual and the prescriptions of Mosaic law (e.g., a disagreement in the number and kinds of animals sacrificed at the New Moon festival--cf. Chapters 25--32 emphasize judgment upon the nations after the fall of Jerusalem for either being participants in or gleeful onlookers to 'the day of Jacob's trouble' 3. For a fuller discussion of this problem see Gleason L. Much caution should be exercised in pressing details, but in the broad outline it may be reasonably deduced that in a coming age all the promises conveyed by the angel to Ezekiel will be fulfilled in the glorious earthly kingdom with which the drama of redemption is destined to close.